O Negative Blood Types

O Negative (DNA) genetic expression by Pixabay

Blood Groups, Rh Negative Blood Types

Blood Types

Blood Type Diets

Blood Groups

What is so important about O Negative blood lines?

Group O, Rh Negative blood has two very distinctive characteristics

  1. It does NOT have either the A antigen or the B antigen in the ABO Blood Grouping classification developed by Karl Landsteiner for the major designation of blood groups. There are four major blood groups called Group A, Group B, Group AB and Group O
  2. It does NOT have the Rh factor or D antigen. This factor was discovered by Landsteiner and others while working with Rhesus monkey blood. (If your blood has the Rh Factor, it is considered to be Rh Positive or D Positive)

Because of these two characteristics, O Negative blood is mistakenly considered a "universal donor" and can safely be given to ALMOST any recipient. Some people have the belief that O Negative blood is "pure" or "alien". Neither of the latter two statements are true.

Contrary to popular belief, O Negative blood is NOT a universal donor at all and cannot be dispensed to everyone. There are many, many genetic markers other than the Rh or D antigen marker that must be considered when determining compatibility of blood.

There is a also genetic mutation called the Du variant. It is actually an Rh (D) Positive antigen, which would make the blood Rh Positive, but since it is very weakly expressed in tests, it's possible to be mistakenly read as Rh Negative.

Did the Rh factor come from monkeys?

The Rh (D) protein and genetic marker was DISCOVERED in the Rhesus monkey. This specific genetic marker is found in primates of which man is one. This indicates that somewhere back in history, the genetic marker came from an ancestor that was common, and came before, the apes, monkeys, and man.

Clarification - The Rh antigen (blood marker) and the D antigen are the same antigen. The capital letter D indicates Positive, and the little letter d indicates Negative

For further discussion, we can simplify the way we name this Rh blood marker to be:

DD = homozygous (you inherit the Rh (D) factor from both parents)

Dd = heterozygous (you inherit one dominant and one recessive gene for the Rh (D) factor) - Technically, this is actually a hemizygous gene as the lower case d marker is missing.

dd = the nullizygous expression of the Rh factor. (you inherit only the recessive genes, or markers for Rh)


If both genes (one from each parent) are the same, the child is homozygous for Rh (D) markers. If both genes from the parents are different, the child is heterozygous for Rh (D). If one gene is missing, the child's Rh (D) genetic expression is hemizygous, and if both genes are missing, the child is nullizygous (Definitions from Wikipedia).

So genetic inheritance charts for the Rh factor would look like the charts to follow (parent genes on left side and top - child genes are the combinations of the parent's genes in the inner squares):

Both parents are Rh Positive - screen shot image from HP by L.A. Cargill

Both Parents are Rh Negative

One parent Rh Negative and One Parent Rh Positive

One parent is Rh Negative and one parent is Rh Positive

Both parents are Rh positive with recessive Rh negative genes

So what Rh type were Adam and Eve?

Just based on the Rh genetic marker alone, we can see that Adam and Eve would need to be Rh Positive and Heterozygous - as explained below.....

  • If Eve were produced from the exact genetic DNA code as Adam (because she was made from his rib which contained his DNA and no other DNA), they would necessarily have to have the exact same blood types - like an identical twin.
  • If they were both Rh Negative and homozygous, they could never have produced an Rh Positive child or grandchild
  • If they were both Rh Positive and homozygous, they could never have produced an Rh Negative child or grandchild
  • If they were both Rh Positive and heterozygous, they would have produced 75% Rh Positive and 25% Rh Negative children as in the example shown in the last table above.

The current world ratio of Rh Positive to Rh Negative blood types is 85% to 15% - This is actually pretty close to the predicted values of both Adam and Eve being Rh Positive and Heterozygous as in the example shown in the last table.

So now we can say with some reasonable chance of probability that Adam and Eve were Rh (Dd) Positive and heterozygous for the Rh blood markers.

Now, what about the four major blood Groups? A, B, AB and O?

Determining the original blood type in the ABO blood group system.

The original blood type is the major group classification of blood in humans. I am specifically referring to the "Adam and Eve" of blood groups and what genetic markers they would have had to have to pass on the various combinations of the major blood groups since they had the "original" genetic coding for blood types.

To determine this, we have to look at blood group genetics and use simple calculations to present our findings. I will attempt to explain these concepts in easy to understand terms so the general audience can follow my logic.

A very surprising result!

Adam and Eve would have had to have the same DNA containing ALL of the human genetic markers for blood groups and ALL of it's variations. If they did not, Eve could NOT have been made from Adam's rib!

  • If they both had the same blood type, it would have had to be Group O in order to have produced Group O children. All Group O people inherit a double dose of the gene for O! But if they had OO + OO genetic markers, they could NEVER have produced any other blood group!
  • If either one had the AA genetic markers or the BB genetic markers were present, Adam and Eve could NEVER have produced Group O children!
  • If either one had AO and AO genetic markers, Adam and Eve could NEVER have produced Group B or AB children!
  • If either one had BO and BO genetic markers, Adam and Eve could NEVER have produced Group A or AB children!

The AO and BO genetic markers would have had to be present in the first parents in order to have produced all of the combinations of Blood Groups in humans today!

There are only four combinations of major blood groups: A, B, AB, and O

Mother and Father Blood Groups by DNA Diagnostics Center

Chart of blood type inheritance patterns

Conclusion - Adam or Eve (one or the other) must have had the AO genetic markers and the second original parent must have had the BO genetic markers to have produced all of the major blood groups of today. This means that they were NOT genetically identical (made from the same DNA)

What does this mean?

Adam and Eve could NOT have been genetically identical! They could not even be genetically related!

Does this mean that Adam had a foreign rib? Did Eve come from some other source. Does it prove that Mitochondrial Eve and Mitochondrial Adam lived thousands of miles apart and maybe even in different areas and eons?

ABO + Rh Conclusion for Adam and Eve:

One of the original parents had to be Group AO with Rh genetic markers of Dd

The other of the original parents had to be Group BO with Rh genetic markers of Dd

Please Contact me if you have a different conclusion to share.

You can also follow me on Quora - a public question and answer group where I answer your questions regarding blood groups and blood types.

A Little About Blood Bankers and Medical Laboratory Professionals:

L. A. Cargill is a certified Medical Laboratory Scientist by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists and has over 30 years of experience in the specialization of blood banking or Immunohematology. This is a statement of credentials in this field of study.

The medical nomenclature changes frequently, eg...

  • MLT = Medical Laboratory Technician
  • MT = Medical Technologist
  • MLS = Medical Laboratory Scientist
  • CLT = Clinical Laboratory Technician
  • CLS = Clinical Laboratory Scientist.

All of these titles pretty much equal the same exact job. Pay scales and educational requirements are different, but all are pretty much the same thing.

The nomenclature of the Rh system:

Rh Negative, Rhesus Negative, D Negative, RhoD Negative, r'r', (little r / little r) and lower case d Negative all mean the EXACT same thing!

There are also things called Du or Weak D variants that are way too complicated to explain here. Suffice it to say that the Rh Negative / Rh Positive genetic expression is in some ways quite simple and in other ways, quite complex. And this is just one of hundreds of genetic blood typing markers (antigens) present on your red blood cells!

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